How I Became a Mac OS user

Years ago, I got tired of Windows for numerous reasons which I don’t have the time to elaborate in this post. Eventually, I switched to Linux. It was new, exciting, and the opportunity to learn something entirely different was fascinating to me. When Ubuntu Dapper Drake came along, I went all in. That was my desktop of choice for a very long time.

After each Ubuntu release, I worked hard to get everything working from the flash player, media, and just about every tool that I needed, just to get the desktop to function the way I wanted to. After several years of Ubuntu updates and fixing the desktop, I got tired of it. It was an exercise I really didn’t want to do every six months.

I switched to the Mac OS because it it’s based on BSD, a Unix variant, which is familiar to me. In some ways, I can get still get down and dirty using the Terminal if I wanted to. The Mac OS for the most part, is a very stable environment. And everything worked at get-go. I’ve been a Mac OS user ever since.

Be careful when using Usermod

When adding an existing user to a group, be careful of using ‘usermod.’ If done incorrectly, you can remove a user from its existing groups. In my case, I used ‘usermod’ to add myself to the www-data group. Since I did it wrong, I lost ‘sudo’ access on the next reboot. I ended up booting up from a rescue CD and restoring /etc/groups. Thankfully, Ubuntu keeps a backup copy called /etc/groups-.

Wrong way:

sudo usermod -G www-data username

Correct way:

sudo usermod -a -G www-data username

Install Laravel 4.2 on Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS

I was having a little trouble getting Laravel installed on a newly installed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS server. I’ve decided to document the whole process in hopes that I’ll use the documentation to good use once again sometime in the future. Who knows, someone will benefit from reading this. I’m not the only one that will be doing a Laravel installation on Ubuntu.

If you need to install Ubuntu from scratch, I recommend that use install LAMP and SSH because you’ll need those services to support Laravel. PHP, MySQL, Apache and SSH would be installed for you right out of the gate. In addition, I recommend that you install PHPMyAdmin for database administration.

In Ubuntu, the default document root is /var/www/. Before starting, let’s make sure we got the correct permissions for Apache, and for the user (you). This is to prevent so you don’t run into issues with write permissions on the document root.

Permissions for /var/www/

# Set group to www-data
sudo chgrp www-data /var/www
# Make it writable for the group
sudo chmod 775 /var/www
# Set GID to www-data for all sub-folders
sudo chmod g+s /var/www
# Add your username to www-data group
sudo usermod -a -G www-data username
# Finally change ownership to username
sudo chown username /var/www/
# Your account shouldn't have any more permission issues

Let’s get the prerequisites taken care of before installing Laravel

Install Curl

sudo apt-get install php5-curl

Install Mycrypt

sudo apt-get install php5-mcrypt

Activate Mcrypt

# Create a symbolic link
sudo ln -s /etc/php5/mods-available/mcrypt.ini /etc/php5/conf.d/mcrypt.ini
# Enable extension
sudo php5enmod mcrypt
# Restart Apache
sudo service apache2 reload

Enable Mod-Rewrite

# enable rewrite
sudo a2enmod rewrite
# restart apache
sudo service apache restart

Set up your Apache virtual host

# Copy default Apache conf
sudo /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default /etc/apache2/sites-available/laravel.conf
# Edit laravel.conf and change DocumentRoot to /var/www/laravel/public
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/laravel.conf
# Edit laravel.conf add the following and save.
DocumentRoot /var/www/laravel/public
<Directory /var/www/laravel/public>
 Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
 Allow Override All
 Order allow,deny
 allow from all
</Directory>
# Reload Apache
sudo service apache2 reload
# Disable default Apache conf
sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf
# Enable laravel.conf
sudo a2ensite laravel.conf
# Reload Apache
sudo service apache reload

Install Via the Laravel Installer

I found the Laravel installer to be the easiest way to install Laravel. Easier than Composer and Git.

cd /var/www/
wget http://laravel.com/laravel.phar

Move it to /usr/local/bin

sudo mv laravel /usr/local/bin/laravel

Make it executable

sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/laravel

Install Laravel

# projects is the destination folder
cd /var/www/
laravel new projects

The cool thing about this example is, I didn’t need to change permissions to “app/storage” since the user has the correct permissions to /var/www. Access Laravel from the IP address of your Ubuntu Server. The IP address of your Ubuntu server should be set to static. The network config file is located in /etc/networking/interfaces.

Ubuntu Network Restart

Starting Ubuntu 14.04, you no longer can bounce the network using the following command:

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
sudo service networking restart

But, I managed to do this:

sudo ifdown eth0
sudo ifup eth0